Tuesday, November 12, 2019
I strongly believe that W.T. Stace is correct while arguing for the view of soft determinism, also known as compatibilism. Stace believes in compatibilism, which states that determinism is true, but free will still does exist. He puts both views together by studying the definition of free will. Stace asks, Ã¢â¬Å"How can anyone be punished or rewarded for his or her actions if they have no control over their actions?Ã¢â¬ That statement seemed extremely convincing to me because both dÃ¢â¬â¢Holbach and Chisholm supported one side of the argument. dÃ¢â¬â¢Holbach and Chisholm argued that we are either strictly determined by the laws of nature and physics or that we are not determined, rather being we have the power to do as we choose. Stace on the other hand, put both positions together and made them work together. He explained that the laws of nature and physics do have an impact on our choices, but we do have the ability to choose what we want to choose when making a decision. Outside forces may push on our decision, but we are the ones responsible for choosing what we want to choose. He persuasively defends his view of soft determinism by explaining the definition of free will. He states, Ã¢â¬Å"In order for one to define free will, one must look into how the phrase is commonly used.Ã¢â¬ The way a philosopher interprets free will is different than the way a common person will do so. Stace defines free acts as acts that are directly caused by a personÃ¢â¬â¢s internal thoughts or desires coming directly from the person. Not free acts are those that have outside forces pushing a person to do something a certain way such as a threat or harm. This was very different from what other philosophers have stated in the past. By providing examples of free will, Stace points out that free will clearly does exist. It wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t make sense for free will not to exist since it is compatible with determinism.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Revenue expenditure is an expenditure which on cost of doing business on day to day basis and is necessary to be cover to maintain the business going on effectively. Thus, revenue expenditure is the cash or credit that being spent immediate for short-term purpose, example, expenses on assets such as repair and fuel which will or will not improve the value of the given assets. Capital expenditure is an expenditure which will cause future benefit to the company. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the money that spends on the fixed assets or improves the value of existing assets which will increase the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s strength to pull in profit or higher performance level. Unlike revenue expenditure, capital expenditure is more to an investment than a cost, since it create better business for the company. (Stolowy and J.Lebas 2006, p 234) Capital expenditure is expenditure on fixed assets or increasing their earning capacity. Meanwhile, revenue expenditure is to maintain their earning capacity. The difference being that capital expenditure increase the earning capacity, long-term and produce future benefits, while revenue expenditure maintain the earning capacity, short term and produce immediate benefit. (ACCA F3 2009) Capital expenditure defined as expenditure on purchase or improvement of non-current assets. For example that purchases a van to deliver the goods. Other example such as:- -Delivery of fixed assets-Legal cost of buying property -Installation of fixed assets-Demolition costs -Improvement (but not repair) of fixed assets -Architects fees Revenue expenditure defined as expenditure on running or management of business, example, cost of fuel or diesel for vans. Other example such as:- -Maintenance of fixed assets -Administration of business -Selling and distribution expenses The main difference between the two forms of expenditure is that effect it has of the financial statement of business as the Balance Sheet and the Income Statement. Revenue expenditure affects in the income statement since it is fully consume within the period or carry forward to the next period as left over. Capital expenditure improve the net book or obtain value of an asset or getting a new asset on the books. It is a long term expenditure and will be wrong to be set off as an expense in the current period. It is because that that fixed asset will pull in profit to the company for more than one year or accounting period. We can spread the cost of the asset over those accounting period in the form of depreciation since the fixed asset is used for several accounting periods. (Spiceland, Thomas, Herrmann 2009, p308 and p309) Revenue expenditure shown on the income statement as an expense while capital expenditure treated as fixed asset on the balance sheet. It is necessary to classify these expenditure accurately in the accounting system to avoid uncertain errors. For example, if cost of a van was treated as an expense in the income statement, this will affect the net profit to be reduced; in the meantime the value of the van (fixed asset) will not show on the balance sheet. Hence, incorrect treatment of these expenditure will result:- (Wood 2012, p277) Capital expenditure Ã¢â¬â treated as Ã¢â¬â Revenue expenditure Income Statement Balance Sheet Expenses increaseNet profit decreaseFixed assets decrease. Revenue expenditure Ã¢â¬â treated as Ã¢â¬â Capital expenditure Income Statement Balance Sheet Expenses decreaseNet profit increaseFixed assets increase. Inappropriate asset classification can skew the financial position and profit of a business. Thus, itÃ¢â¬â¢s necessary to classify assets correctly and accurately. Decent classification of the expenditure maintains theÃ fundamental accounting assumption of accrual, reasonable presentation and accuracy of presentation.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Strategic Analysis A Case Study of Woolworths Ltd Executive Summary This report analyses in detail the overall environment in which Woolworth supermarket operates with a view of identifying particular areas where the management needs to put in measures that can enhance growth and performance. Woolworth is a retail chain established in both Australia and New Zealand and which mainly deals in foodstuffs.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Strategic Analysis: A Case Study of Woolworths Ltd specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The chain has further diversified its operations, venturing into other business areas like dealing in the petroleum industry and food restaurants within its premises. The chain has successfully established itself as a market leader in the retail industry, establishing stores in major cities in both Australia and the New Zealand. WoolworthÃ¢â¬â¢s market leadership was mainly achieved through provision of quality service to its clientele and listening t o customer pleas and demands and implementing them appropriately. This report evaluates the strong economic and political environments within which Woolworth operates. Other factors that contribute immensely to the growth and performance of the supermarket chains include its internal factors and capabilities such as its strong appeal to keep, attract and maintain customers, the market barriers controlled by the chains which keep new entrants at bay as well as the business diversification that ensures profit maximisation for the company. Introduction Woolworths Limited is a retail company based in Australia and whose operations spread across the borders to the neighbouring New Zealand. The retailer chain deals in a multiple of goods and services including food, liquor, hotel services, among many others. Since its formation in 1924, Woolworths has been a success story in the retail industry, expanding very fast to establish subsidiaries and acquiring other retail brands on its growth path. Today, the chain has a huge workforce of over 191,000 and boasts of A$2.14 billion in profits as per the latest figures recorded by close of business in 2011. (Chang, S Singh, H 2011,p.740). This paper analyses the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s business strategy, investigating its macro environment as well as checking its competitive environment and analysing its competencies as far as resources are concerned.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Background information Woolworths Ltd is a public owned company with its shareholders base exceeding 420,000 people, 40,000 of whom are directly employed by the company (Woolworths Supermarkets 2011). The first Woolworths store was opened in downtown Sydney on December 5th, 1924 with a nominal capital of just Ã £25,000. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s initial 11,707 shares were held by 29 people, five of whom were the founders. Woolworths pio neered the conduction of transactions using cash registers; every purchase was accompanied by a receipted printed via the cash register. The stores opened up the first international branch in New Zealand in 1929 which dealt in general merchandise. As part of its expansion program, the chains acquired Foodland supermarkets and Progressive Enterprises, bringing the total number of WoolworthsÃ¢â¬â¢ stores in Australia today to 750. Woolworths brand has today diversified its business into 5 major divisions which includes supermarkets that mainly stocks households and foodstuffs. The liquor division sells alcohol products through Safeway Liquor, BWS which stands for Beer Wine Spirits, Dan MurphyÃ¢â¬â¢s, WoolworthÃ¢â¬â¢s liquor and Cellarmasters. The hotel division is served by ALH Group while the supermarket chains also ventured into the petroleum industry through a partnership deal with Caltex. Other divisions include the consumer electronics, General merchandise and Home improvem ent (Woolworths Supermarkets 2011). Macro Environment Analysis for the Industry The macro environment analysis studies external forces whose influence in one way or the other affects the performance of the retail industry in general and Woolworth supermarkets in particular. Players in any business industry often lack the ability to control these external forces. Political environment The closer economic relations between Australia and New Zealand have benefited Woolworth business performance for a long time. The two countries have established Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Trade Agreement, ANZCERTA, which combines the two economies and thus provides Woolworth with the chance to operate in the enlarged economy (Woolworths Supermarkets 2011).Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Strategic Analysis: A Case Study of Woolworths Ltd specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The two countries also enjoy political stabi lity which is a perfect environment for doing business. This is a good assurance for shareholders, both domestic and foreign, that their investment is safe and it is an incentive to them to add even more. The 2011 IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook ranked Australia and New Zealand in positions 3 and 5 respectively, which is a good indicator that both economies offer a perfect environment for business activity. With continued political stability, Woolworth is poised to grow and expand even more as many investors are assured of safety in the event that they decide to put their money into the venture. There are no fears of political wars and uprisings that can affect the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s business performance Economic factors Australia and New Zealand offer economically sound environment that is good for business activity. The two countries, in comparison to other nations, have a high living standard. The World Bank acknowledged Australia as a rich country in 1995 while the countryÃ¢â¬ â¢s GDP hit the $ 1 trillion mark in 2006. The economyÃ¢â¬â¢s growth has been rated at 3.3% per annum with one of the highest Purchasing Power Parity, PPP in the world. In 2004, AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s PPP was recorded at $30,700. The country has very low inflation and interest rates with one of the best infrastructures in the world. Its education facilities are of advanced quality while a majority of the population are rich. The World Health Organization certifies AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s crime rates to be among the lowest in the whole world. New Zealand has an estimated Purchasing Power Parity PPP of US$28,250 which is relatively high. The economy is made up of manufacturing industries as well as a vibrant service sector which together compliment the agricultural sector. The countryÃ¢â¬â¢s nominal GDP is the 51st in the world at $157.877 with a per capita income of $35,374 (Wright, P.1987, p.93).Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More New ZealandÃ¢â¬â¢s economy has been on the rise since 1984 following rapid restructuring that transformed the economy to a liberalised one. Unemployment has fallen to a record 3.4 percent in 2007 which was the fifth lowest in OECD nations. The global recession of 2009, however, affected the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy negatively mainly because the country highly depends on international trend. The financial crunch pushed unemployment rates among the youth to very high figures of 17.4% in June 2011. AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s stable economy with the high living standards of her population portends a lucrative market for WoolworthÃ¢â¬â¢s business performance. More nationals have a high purchasing power due to the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s high per capita income and very low unemployment levels. Foreign nationals who visit the country in large numbers also create a huge chunk of the market as they experiment with the unique goods and services offered in Australia. New Zealand is on the recovery path o f her economy following bad economic times between 2008 and 2011. With the recovery plans on course, the country has been experiencing a brain gain as more professionals who had opted to seek better employment in Europe and America troop back. This implies that the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s living standards are set to improve in the short term period as the problem of unemployment is tackled. New ZealandÃ¢â¬â¢s Purchasing Power Parity is also comparatively high and an improved living standard for the entire population will prove substantial for the overall performance of Woolworth. Socio-cultural factors Woolworth has adopted a green lifestyle in its 2007-2015 sustainability strategy. This implies that the company is more aware of practices that harm the environment and has thus adopted environmental friendly practices for the good of its consumers and the society at large. More consumers are conscious of their environment and would love to purchase and patronize items and goods that are o rganic. Woolworth further addresses individual needs of its customers by providing efficient and fast services. The environmental awareness that is carried out by the supermarket chains continues to attract more clients as everyone today would love to be associated with clean environment. Technological factors Woolworth continues to invest heavily in information communication technology as it aims at improving service delivery and customer satisfaction. The self-checkout machine is as a result of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s initiative and has continued to be emulated by other players in the industry due to its convenience in business performance (Woolworths Supermarkets 2011). The machines were introduced in 2008 and enable customers to scan, weigh, as well as pay for their acquired goods through debit, credit or cash cards. The Service Oriented Architecture is yet another technological initiative by Woolworth which enables the supermarket management to monitor general trends in performanc e at a glance and spot out any existing bottlenecks that could be slowing down business. The speed with which this happens helps the management to put corrective measures into place that eventually averts losses or negative growth. The Visa payWave which is the latest innovation by the stores has helped in reducing average customer waiting time. The frequency at which the checkout queues are being cleared is much faster than was the case in advance. These technological advances have attracted more customers to the stores due to the improved efficiency with which clients are being attended to. No customer would love to spend longer times at the check out point than the actual time they spent doing their shopping (Tyre Hauptman, 1992). Legal factors Big W is a division of Woolworth and is a registered business entity that is licensed to operating Australia with more than 160 stores spread in Queensland, West Australia, South Australia, New South Wales, Australian Capital Territory, N orthern Territory, and Tasmania. The company remits taxes to both governments as a legal requirement and the funds go a long way to finance activities of the government such as building and improving infrastructure, financing public goods paying salaries and buying necessities such as medicines. As a legal requirement, the company is expected by the regulatory authorities to be tax compliant (Peng 2004). The taxes are remitted directly to the government. In the Australian laws on commerce, certificate of compliance to taxes is issued to business that remit their returns accurately form which taxes are deducted. The realisation by customers that Big W contributes immensely in the growth of their economy convinces as many consumers as possible to purchase from their local store and contribute towards building the economy (BIG W: Why shop at BIG W 2007). Industry Analysis using PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s 5 Forces Model Threat to market entry It is difficult for any aspiring supermarket chain to e nter into the industry in Australia and New Zealand markets and manage to break even easily. In Australia, Big W business magnitude together with that of its main competitors, Wesfarmers, Target, and Kmart stores are well established and would easily enjoy economies of scale to the disadvantage of a new entrant. The stores have spread across the nation, opening numerous branches in all major cities and centres and it would require massive capital for an aspiring investor to out perform their business prowess. Besides, it serves an estimated 6 million customers in a month (BIG W: Why shop at BIG W 2007). Given it huge stores, reliable customer base, and a stable market niche, Big W have the capacity to stock a lot of goods at a reduced cost. This eventually affords its stores the power to lower prices below what the market can offer and in the process win more customers than a new entrant could manage (Desarbo, Jedidi Sinha, 2001). Thus, the company is well position to survive in th e competitive market through gaining form economies of scale, competitive price tags, and strong customer base. Threat of substitutes Wesfarmers and Target chains pose the greatest threat to Big WÃ¢â¬â¢s existence and business performance. These stores have been in the industry for longer period and are well established than Big W which came into full operation in 2007 after rebranding (Roth 2011). They stock the same products and cloth lines and sometimes offer big discounts to customers. In this industry, loyalty to a brand plays an important role in customer behaviour. Besides, these companies also offer foodstuffs and electronics same as in Big W. Therefore, Target and Wesfarmers have the ability to offer an alternative perfect substitute to customers who may be unsatisfied with services offered at Big W. Unsatisfied customers therefore have other alternatives from where they can purchase products and services (Bodily Allen, 1999). However, in order to remain relevant, the co mpany has established a unique market for its customer tailored optometry services and are still the best in the self serve stores. Power of suppliers Suppliers in the supermarket industry have more power owing to the existence of many supermarket chains. As a matter of fact, suppliers may instigate market demand and supply variances. All the chains depend on the suppliers directly for the delivery of their stock and this leaves the suppliers with the power to dictate on proceedings in the industry. Through the action of the suppliers, commodity prices can be influenced to their own advantage while leaving the Big W together with its clientele base at a disadvantaged position (Cusumano Takeishi, 1991). However, the company has endeavoured to use both in house and outsourced supplier as a strategy for balancing the supply forces in the fragile market (Roth 2011). Power of buyers Reflectively, the amount of output in terms of turn over sales depends on the buyersÃ¢â¬â¢ purchasing p ower. The higher the purchasing power, the better the turnover in total sales realised over a definite period of time. Big WÃ¢â¬â¢s performance in the retail industry depends highly on the power of the buyers. On the other hand, unreliable and weak purchasing power translates into losses and underperformance. The management must therefore do everything within their means to ensure that service delivery and quality meets the expectations of customers. In fact, the purchasing power determines profitability and probability of survival of a business in short and long term. If buyers will feel dissatisfied because of poor service, they can easily opt to acquire the same goods and services from rival stores thus loosing out on business opportunities (Ehrenberg, 1964). Rivalry There are several retail stores operating in the same industry with virtually of them dealing in a variety of products and services. For instance Target stores provide the biggest competition to Big W due to its bi g market share and expanded network standing at 30% (BIG W: Why shop at BIG W 2007). Other chains that have substantial market share include Wesfarmers and Kmart Supermarkets, Jewel Food Stores. With many customers looking for good value for their money, quality in service delivery has remained the main basis upon which customers are making their final decision to buy. All the players in the industry are putting measures in place to ensure they attract more customers and therefore expand their market share. Therefore, the size, in terms of space occupied by business premises, defines the temperature of competition. In line with this, in 2009, Big W Company launched the largest store in Australia measuring 10,000m2 and a $300 million invested in stocks on the same (Roth, 2011, p. 200). As analysed above, Big W Company has embraced the significance of PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s approach to market forces in a business environment. As discussed, Big W Company has been in a position to swing these forces and manipulate them to their advantage through offering competitive prices, expansion, diversification, and cutting a market niche. However, any slow reaction to addressing these factors can cause business suffering leading to huge losses and reduced market share (Chang Singh, 2000). Big WÃ¢â¬â¢s Competitive Advantage Expanded business portfolio Although Big W has been a household name in the general retail stores industry, the chain has an expanded business portfolio which includes investments in photo processing, self serve check point introduction, parcel pick up, lay-by, and home delivery (BIG W: Why shop at BIG W 2007). The expanded portfolio provides the business with competitive advantage in the sense that it can still maintain profitable performance even in instances where the retail store business experiences poor performance. Through diversification and portfolio balance, the company is in a position to survive turbulence in the harsh economic environment charact erised by stiff competition and inflation (Michael, 2000). Big WÃ¢â¬â¢s Business Strategy Cost Leadership Strategy Cost leadership strategy is vital in business management especially in an industry with stiff competition. Reflectively, the concept, as proposed by Porter, is a mean of establishing a sustainable competitive advantage over other player in the industry. Big W Company has adopted the cost leadership strategy to improve its efficiency through streamlining operations. As a result, this venture has developed a cumulative experience, optimal performance, quality assurance, and is in full control of their operational chains. In order to cut down cost of production and marketing, the company has embraced the modern technology in its online sales, human resource management, purchasing, and dispatch departments (BIG W: Why shop at BIG W 2007). The company has entered into a partnership with outsourced but competent suppliers rather than engaging its resources in obtaining prod ucts. As a result, the general over head cost of operation has been reduced substantially. In addition, the company has opted for diversification and expansion of stores in order to gain from economies of scale as the overall turnover grows. Through adoption of scientific human resource management, the company has been in a position to track redundancy and monitor employee performance and evaluations done on the basis of contract. As a result, issues of underperformance has been minimised substantially. At present, this chain produces the best quality packaging of its product at the cheapest price possible since production is done in mass. In addition, the company has introduced a series of efficiency monitoring systems such as performance valuation, efficiency in production, target management, and electronic purchasing which has greatly reduced labour cost. These ventures aim at enabling the company to optimise profits through efficiency in production, sales, accountability, and us e of company resources while maintaining quality (Hambrick, 1983). Benefits and Suitability of the Cost Leadership Strategy Efficiency monitoring in distribution, sales, cash flow management, labour, and diversification as employed by Big W is particularly suitable for the firm as it is more of a precautionary measure that shields the firm from effects of redundancy and underutilization of production variables. Despite rivalry in the retail industry, Big W has been in a position to monitor all its operation chains and periodically evaluate the same as a means of reducing overhead cost due to underutilization, poor balancing, and unaccountability. As a result, Big W has managed to transform its portfolio and capital structure by 18% since most of operation lines is optimally utilized (BIG W: Why shop at BIG W 2007). Conclusion Conclusively, it is apparent that Big W is a force in the retail store industry in Australia. Reflectively, the company has successfully managed to establish o ver 160 stores across Australia. Besides, the chain has remodelled its cost leadership to embrace efficiency in operations through incorporation of technology, monitoring tools, and evaluation systems. As a result, despite stiff competition, the chain offers competitive prices and substantial discounts since they maximize gains from economies of scale due to large turnover per annum. In 2011, its operating income stabilized at $177 million. Incorporation of the Porters market forces in the management of this successful chain is directly linked to its consistency, profitability, and efficiency. List of References BIG W: Why shop at BIG W 2007. Web. Bodily, SE Allen, MS 1999, A dialogue process for choosing value-creating strategies, Interfaces, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 16-28. Chang, S Singh, H 2000, Corporate and industry effects on business unit competitive position, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 739-752 Cusumano, MA Takeishi, A 1991, Supplier relations and managem ent: A survey of Japanese, Japanese-Transplant, and US Auto plants, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 563-588. Desarbo, W S, Jedidi, K Sinha, I 2001, Customer value analysis in a heterogeneous market, Srategic management Journal, vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 845-857 Ehrenberg, ASC 1964, Estimating the proportion of loyal buyers, Journal of Marketing Research, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 56-59. Hambrick, DC 1983, High profit strategies in mature capital goods industries: A contingency approach, The Academy of Management Journal, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 687-707. Michael, SC 2000, Investments to create bargaining power: The case of franchising, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 497-514. Peng, MW 2004, Identifying the big question in international business research, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 99-108. Roth, M 2011, Top Stocks 2012: A Share-buyerÃ¢â¬â¢s Guide to Leading Australian Companies, John Wiley and Sons, New York. Tyre, M J Hauptma n, O 1992, Effectiveness of organizational responses to technological change in the production process, Organization Science, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 301-320. Woolworths Supermarkets 2011, Woolworths. Web. Wright, P 1987, A refinement of PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s strategies, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 93-101
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
The Ultimate Guide to the AP US History Exam SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips The AP US History exam involves reading, writing, and in-depth analysis. It's not just about memorizing names and dates; you'll be asked to interpret historical evidence quickly and accurately, recall outside information about the topic, and, on the essay questions, synthesize your ideas into a coherent argument. In this guide, I'll give you a rundown of the format and structure of the exam along with a brief content outline, sample questions, and some tips for a great score! How Is the AP US History Exam Structured? The AP US History testin 2016 will be administered on Friday, May 6th at 8 AM. It hasmultiple-choice, short answer, and free-response sections, and the total length is 3 hours and 15 minutes. The Multiple-Choice Section Is: 55 minutes long 55 questions 40 percent of your score Formatted in sets of two to five questions that are based on the provided pieces of historical evidence The Short-Answer Section Is: 50 minutes long Four questions 20 percent of your score Questions have multiple parts and will usually reference pieces of historical evidence The Free-Response Section Is: Comprised of two questions: Document-based question An essay based on a prompt that's accompanied by a series of relevant historical documents 55 minutes 25 percent of your score Long essay question Regular essay question where you get to choose between two different prompts 35 minutes for the long essay question 15 percent of your score On the free-response section, you will be told when 55 minutes are up and advised to move on to the second question, but you arenÃ¢â¬â¢t forced to do so. Time management is one of the major challenges of this test! Content Background for the AP US History Exam There are seven themes addressed inthe AP US History course, and all of them will show up in one form or another on the exam.Each represents a subset of learning objectives that students are expected to master.You can read more about the learning objectives in the course description;here IÃ¢â¬â¢ll just give a broad overview of the major themes: Theme 1: American and National Identity How and why definitions of American and national identity and values have developed. Related topics such as citizenship, constitutionalism, foreign policy, assimilation, and American exceptionalism. Theme 2: Politics and Power How different social and political groups have influenced society and government in the United States. How political beliefs and institutions have changed over time. Theme 3: Work, Exchange, and Technology Factors behind systems of economic exchange and development, including the role of technology, economic markets, and government. Theme 4: Culture and Society The roles that ideas, beliefs, social mores, and creative expression have played in shaping the United States. How various identities, cultures, and values have been preserved or changed at different stages in U.S. History. Theme 5: Migration and Settlement Why and how the various people who moved to and within the United States both adapted to and transformed their new environments. Theme 6: Geography and the Environment The role of geography and environments (natural and man-made) on social and political developments in the United States. Theme 7: America in the World Interactions between nations that affected North American history in the colonial period. The influence of the United States on world affairs. These themes are discussed across nine different historical periods, each of which corresponds to a certain percentage of questions on the AP exam: Sample AP US History Questions Now that you have a sense of the test content, I'll present you with sample questions to give you a better idea of what it actually looks like! Multiple-Choice Question For multiple choice, youÃ¢â¬â¢re given one or two pieces of historical evidence followed by a set of questions that ask you to do some analysis.The US History exam is less about knowing specific dates and names and more about being able to draw conclusions and connect themes based on materials provided by the test. First, letÃ¢â¬â¢s read the (disturbing) statement weÃ¢â¬â¢re considering for this question: Hammond refers to slaves as Ã¢â¬Å"fellow creatures whom God has entrusted to my chargeÃ¢â¬ and goes on to say that it is Ã¢â¬Å"in the interest of all...to treat our slaves with proper kindness.Ã¢â¬ This is a statement typical of many southern slaveowners at the time.In his view, he has been entrusted by God to take care of his slaves because they are lower in the natural hierarchy.He talks about treating them with kindness to make it seem like slavery helps everyone. Southerners believed they were doing their slaves a favor by treating them well within the slave system because slaves werenÃ¢â¬â¢t capable of handling freedom. Now, we'll examine our choices: Choice (A) can be ruled out because there is nothing in the statement that indicates a reaction to the development of gradual emancipation laws. Hammond isdefending slavery in a broader moral sense. Choice (B) is incorrect because there is no relationship between the statement and development of stronger slave codes.Hammond talks about treating his slaves well and is clearly trying to ignore the increased unrest within the slave system. Choice (C) should be eliminated as well.Although Hammond is making a moral argument for slavery that could be considered a counter to activistsÃ¢â¬â¢ moral arguments against it, there isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a direct enough connection between the quote and the trend described in this answer choice. Finally, letÃ¢â¬â¢s look at choice (D), which is the correct answer.This is the only choice that makes a DIRECT connection between the point of view expressed in the excerpt and the social/political trends of the time.HammondÃ¢â¬â¢s statement is an individual piece of evidence that serves to demonstrate the larger movement of southerners touting slavery as a Ã¢â¬Å"positive goodÃ¢â¬ benefitting both slaves and masters. Short-Answer Question Short answer questions are technically considered part of the multiple-choice section because they are so much less involved than the essay questions.Although they do have multiple parts, you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to come up with a thesis (one sentence answers are ok). They're about succinctly connecting themes and reference materials to specific events or trends. HereÃ¢â¬â¢s an example: For part (A), you would need to provide a brief explanation of the aspects of the cartoon that express the artistÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view on a particular economic topic. For example:The artist expresses the view that industrial capitalism is an exploitative and unfair system in which underpaid laborers work hard to build the basis on which wealthy capitalists lounge around and enjoy lives of luxury. For part (B), you would need to describe a specific development between 1865 and 1910 that supports the artistÃ¢â¬â¢s viewpoint. For example:Newly rich businessmen such as Gould or Vanderbilt quickly rose to prominence and lived lavish lifestyles funded by huge corporate monopolies. For part (C), you would need to describe another specific development within the same time period that challenges the artistÃ¢â¬â¢s viewpoint. For example:A more industrialized economy brought benefits to many people in society through access to cheaper commodities, new technologies, and improvements in the standard of living. Document-Based Question These are the instructions youÃ¢â¬â¢ll see for the document-based question: The question itself is a short prompt that gives you a lens through which to view the sample documents.YouÃ¢â¬â¢re given seven different documents to examine, and, to earn full credit, you have to use at least six of them as evidence for your thesis in your answer. Documents range from transcripts of folk songs to excerpts from letters and newspapers to demographic maps.I wonÃ¢â¬â¢t list all the documents that were presented for this specific question, but here are a couple so you can get a sense of the variety youÃ¢â¬â¢ll see on the exam: There are several components of a solid response to this question: Thesis The thesis must clearly address patterns of continuity and change over time with regards to the social and economic experiences of African Americans who migrated North in the early 1900s.DonÃ¢â¬â¢t make it hard for the graders to find your thesis; the best place to put it is right at the end of your first paragraph. Here's an example:As many African Americans migrated North in the period from 1910 to 1930, they encountered both new and familiar challenges, including the hostility of white northerners, barriers to employment, and housing segregation. Evidence At least six out of seven documents (and preferably all seven!) should be used as evidence in your essay. Also, atleast one of the following should be examined in the essay for four or more of the documents: the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view, the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose, the intended audience, and the historical context. Analysis and Connections The essay must draw connections between documents or parts of documents to build an argument.You should also observe in your essay that documents reflect differences in point of view, audiences, formats, etc.Paying attention to the context is critical for an appropriate historical reading (for example, document 4 is written for a white audience by a white author, so that should inform the way its statements are viewed). Outside Knowledge Your essay should also include knowledge that extends beyond the documents themselves and strengthens your argument. Caution:DONÃ¢â¬â¢T start fact-vomiting all over this essay. Make sure what youÃ¢â¬â¢re saying is directly relevant to your argument.One historical trend you might mention specifically is the rise of legalized social segregation in the South (impact ofPlessy v. Ferguson).You could also note that the evidence in the documents provided does not reference the Harlem Renaissance, which was an important development in the experience of many African Americans in the urban North during the 1920s. Context Your essay shouldalsoconnect the issues raised by the documents to broader discussions of racism in U.S. history.You could talk about things like: The transition from an agricultural to an industrial economy Different motivations that have influenced migration within the U.S. Development of housing patterns in urban environments Long Essay Question For your long essay, you will be able to choose between two prompts.HereÃ¢â¬â¢s an example of a potential prompt: Your answer should include many of the same elements as your answer to the document-based question, but there are no documents to analyze and reference, so you have less time to write.This question also asks you to take a more solid argumentative stance for or against a certain claim. The first thing you should do is decide whether you support, partially support, or totally disagree with the argument presented in the question.Then, write a thesis that makes your point of view clear and briefly references examples you will use to support it in the body of your essay. If you chose to support the statement, your essay might include the following points: The New Deal was a conservative measure taken to preserve a capitalist economy in the US by lessening the negative effects of capitalism and mitigating weaknesses within the system. It represented a desire to change things as little as possible while maintaining the economic status quo. No programs in the New Deal led to fundamental redistribution of land and wealth, so most elements of the capitalist system were unchanged. If you instead decided to argue against the statement, your essay might include the following points: The New Deal was a dramatic departure from the role government had played in the US economy up to that point. Programs were revolutionary in that they provided relief to people who were struggling, curbed corporate abuses, and sought to protect the environment. Alternatively, you could say that the New Deal was revolutionary in a negative way; the government veered too far into socialism and worsened the effects of the depression for people like business owners. You could mention the more far-reaching benefits and drawbacks of the New Deal to provide additional evidence for your point (greater financial security for people in the long run as a result of New Deal programs). You could also modify the original statement by saying that the New Deal was a moderate measure that fell between conservatism and revolution (the partial agreement option).More extreme factions of conservative and progressive groups were either alarmed at the dramatic changes or dissatisfied with a policy that fell short of complete economic restructuring. Whatever your argument, you must include specific references to historical events or trends of the period for context (for example, you might mention conservative fiscal policies of presidents before Roosevelt and the causes of the Great Depression). One of FDR's quirks was that he always had to be painted completely green from head to toe before being seen in public. Using this strategy, he successfully prevented people from noticing his wheelchair for years. How Is the AP US History Exam Scored? On the multiple-choice section (55 raw points possible), you get a point added to your raw score for each question that you answer correctly. No points are taken off for incorrect answers!Each short-answer question is worth three points, so there are 12 raw points possible in the short-answer section. The document-based question is scored based on the following criteria (seven raw points possible): Thesis and argument: 2 points Document analysis: 2 points Using evidence beyond the documents: 2 points Synthesis: 1 point The long essay question is scored based on the following criteria (six raw points possible): Thesis: 1 point Argument development: using the targeted historical thinking skills: 2 points Argument development: using evidence: 2 points Synthesis: 1 point On essay questions, points are taken off for errors only if they detract from the quality of the argument being made (basically, donÃ¢â¬â¢t make up historical facts to support an argument).Grammatical errors are not a big deal as long as they don't inhibit the grader's ability to understand what your essay is saying. The total number of raw points you can earn on the test is 80: 55 on the multiple choice, 12 on the short answer, seven on the DBQ, and six on the long essay.Raw scores can be converted to scaled scores out of 150. Multiply your raw score (out of 55) on the multiple-choice section by 1.1 to get your scaled multiple choice score. Then, multiply your raw score (out of 12) on the short answer-section by 2.5 to get your scaled short answer score.Multiply your raw score (out of seven) on the document-based question by 5.4 to get your scaled DBQ score.Multiply your raw score (out of six) on the long essay question by 3.75 to get your scaled long essay question score. Then, add all of the scores together to get your final scaled score! HereÃ¢â¬â¢s a chart to show you approximately how the scaled scores translate to final AP scores: Scaled Score AP Score Percentage of Students in 2015 115 - 150 5 9.3% 90 - 114 4 17.8% 65 - 89 3 23.6% 44 - 64 2 25% 0 - 43 1 24.3% I made my best estimates based on other AP score conversion charts because there was no official scaled to AP score conversion chart online for the latest version of the exam.Your teacher or review book may have a more accurate score conversion system that you can use for official practice tests. Tips for the AP US History Exam AP US History is a grueling test that requires intense critical thinking and analytical skills.Here are some tips you should remember if you hope to do well: Tip #1: Accurate Facts ArenÃ¢â¬â¢t Always Correct Answers Many multiple-choice questions will list answers that are accurate representations of historical events or trends but donÃ¢â¬â¢t directly respond to the question being asked. Be wary of these answers on the test so that you donÃ¢â¬â¢t accidentally choose them over more relevant responses.In the multiple choice question I gave as an example, one incorrect choice was Ã¢â¬Å"The expanding use of moral arguments by Northern antislavery activists.Ã¢â¬ At the time referenced in the question, this was a real trend that occurred, but it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t relate directly to the excerpt that was referenced. That means itÃ¢â¬â¢s still the wrong answer.DonÃ¢â¬â¢t let these types of choices confuse you; adhere to the particulars of the question and the evidence presented! Tip #2: Details Are Important: Read Excerpts Carefully! Most of this exam is based on historical reference materials.You wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be able to answer questions correctly without reading carefully.Even if you know everything there is to know about US History, that knowledge will mostly just serve to contextualize the evidence presented on the test.The specific details found in the writings and images will ultimately reveal the best answer choice. Tip #3: Plan Before You Write ItÃ¢â¬â¢s critical to write well-organized, focused essays on the AP US History test.A clear thesis is the first thing on the agenda.Then, you need to make sure the rest of your essay ties back into your thesis and provides relevant evidence throughout.If you jump into writing an essay without taking the time to organize your thoughts, youÃ¢â¬â¢re more likely to ramble or get off-topic from the main focus of the question. For the document-based question, youÃ¢â¬â¢re encouraged to spend 15 of the 55 minutes planning how to organize your thoughts and use the different documents as evidence.You have less time for the long essay question, but you should still spend five minutes or so writing a brief outline before you start your final draft. Tip #4: Use Outside Evidence Wisely ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a smart idea to incorporate additional background knowledge into your responses on the test.It shows that youÃ¢â¬â¢ve mastered the material and can connect themes to what you learned in class and not just what was presented to you in the question.However, donÃ¢â¬â¢t include outside knowledge unless it bolsters your argument.If youÃ¢â¬â¢re just sticking it in there to prove how much you know, your essay will lack focus, and you may lose points.ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why itÃ¢â¬â¢s so important to plan ahead; in the planning stage, you can think of examples that tie into your thesis and strategically place them throughout your essay in ways that contribute to your point. Be wise, like an owl. Not necessarily this one...it looks like it lost its grip on reality a long time ago. Conclusion The AP US History exam is one of the longer AP tests, and it has four different types of questions! You'll see multiple-choice, short answer, document-based, and long essay questions on this test. The main thread running through the entire exam is an emphasis on analyzing historical evidence and applying outside knowledge in context. In your studying, you will need to learn to connect the five themes of the course to events spanning 500 years of North American history. To recap, some study tips that I recommend include: Don't mistake accurate facts for correct answers Always read excerpts carefully Plan before writing your essays Use outside evidence strategically Make sure you practice all the different types of questions with official materials before you sit down to take the real test. If you get used to thinking about history in an analytical, evidence-based context, you should have no problem earning a high AP score! What's Next? Looking for more practice materials? Check out our article on the best online quizzes you can take to prepare for the AP US History test! Review books can be extremely helpful tools in preparing for AP tests. If you can't decide which one to get,take a look at this list of the best review books for the AP US History exam in 2016. Did you lose some of your notes? Head on over to this article for links to AP US History notes on every section of the course. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Mid term paper - Essay Example The revolution has encouraged the equal opportunity among men and women in the place of work. This is because it has ensured that these two genders have equal capabilities to function at work. There is no a designated task to one gender that cannot be undertaken by the other. Furthermore, it has ensured that there is a balance between the employment of men and women in the workplace, hence ensuring that gender balance has been achieved. Cuba is the only state in the world to achieve an almost perfect gender balance, and all this is due to the revolution. The most desirable society that can be created in Cuba is one where all people within it are equal, with nobody being either above or beneath the other (Miller 675). Moreover, there should be gender balance in government so that it is no longer just dominated by men. In addition, a society that is just should be created, where everybody is allowed to do what he or she want so long as what they do does not destroy the aims of the revolution. However, the creation of such a society cannot be achieved unless several threats are dealt with swiftly. One of these is the beginning of a highly paternalistic culture in the society, where one cannot go ahead in life unless he or she is sponsored by somebody powerful in society. The second threat is the temptation to introduce slowly capitalistic features into the country in order to conform to the world economy. This is extremely dangerous because so far, the revolution has been a success and it can therefore, not be merged with corrupting el ements. The United States has from the very beginning of the revolution, been the biggest enemy of Cuba (Gronbeck-Tedesco 651). It has repeatedly, tried to overthrow the revolution and replace it with a corrupt capitalistic system like the one that existed before. This state is, therefore, also the biggest threat to the achievement of life that the new order would bring to the people of Cuba. There is a
Friday, November 1, 2019
Article analysis Negotiation Without a Net - Essay Example 4) as well as special communication skill such as empathic listening and active listening (p. 5). The strategic considerations of the negotiation process described in the article bear much similarity to business negotiations. For instance, police negotiations are goal-directed (p. 4). The negotiator has to remember the goal in order to modify tactics and strategies. Secondly, as suggested in the case of suicide negotiations (p. 7), it is essential that both sides feel that not negotiating is the worst option. This reflects the importance of a win-win approach to negotiation. An interesting insight provided into the structure of the negotiation process is that negotiation can be conducted as Ã¢â¬Å"a series of small agreements (p. 4).Ã¢â¬ This helps to set milestones to what might be a tedious process. It also helps to build trust and commitment to build the relationship. Another important strategic insight into the techniques of negotiation is that by engaging with one another, the negotiators can extract useful information about one another and use it to their strategic adva ntage. This has been referred to as mirroring (p. 5). Finally, the importance of teamwork is highlighted in the article as a vital means of ensuring the success of the negotiation. Negotiating can be a tiring and stressful process; hence, the presence of a team with specialized roles can help to make the process efficient (p. 6). Personal characteristics and behaviours of the negotiators are also analyzed in this article. For instance, it is suggested that the negotiator should have maximum control over emotions while not ignoring their existence (p. 6). This holds similarity with the theory of emotional intelligence where self-awareness and control are emphasized for successful communication. Secondly, it is important for the negotiators to detach their personal self from the situation. This helps them to avoid taking
Wednesday, October 30, 2019
The Real Estate Business - Essay Example Real estate business as other businesses has its challenges. Inflation can affect the businesses to a point of closing them down or operating on losses. The recession in the U.S economy has affected the real estate business. The residential housing Market has turned around. For instance, the Gross Domestic Product growth in the U.S declined from 4.9% in the third quarter to 0.6% in the fourth quarter of 2007. Unemployment rate has gone up, and this has seriously affected the lifestyle of people in the U.S. spending becomes a problem, and most people go for cheap product even in personal consumption (Lynn, 2009). In the U.S, real estate business is facing a formidable challenge, and this affects the country and global economic growth. Investment in the real estate business has been affected by the finances and lending institutions. The for- sale housing market has had an enormous challenge, and the business is going down. This is as a result of low affordability, tight lending standar ds and excess supply in many regions. When a country is going through a recession, the market finds itself in the bad shape. People refrain from buying the products in the market because their spending power is weakened (Lynn, 2009). The real estate is also affected due to the increased cost of materials from suppliers. The reason why the suppliers increase their costs in many counties is because during recession time the government adjusts the policies of taxation. The materials are taxed highly, and therefore the supplier has no option than to increase the cost of construction materials. This affects the market place, and the business will go down, and the end result is poor economic growth. Taxes are particularly burdensome, and businesses suffer when they are taxed unfairly. Like in the U.S taxation system is regarded as the most unequal and unjust in the word. This can also be seen in other parts of the world. Political leaders may take advantage of their power to manipulate th e taxation policies. Their businesses are not taxed in the same ratio as for the citizens. Economic development to them becomes a task of the citizens who pays the largest amount in paying taxes (Hinkel, 2008). The government should try and subsidize taxes so that companies and suppliers venturing into a business do not suffer losses. The customers also will be willing to buy or rent houses because the prices will be affordable. The tax law should be reviewed in a way that they favor both parties. The seller and the purchaser are the parties in question. They should be in a position to do transactions without incurring much cost. The government should ensure there the transactions are fair by reviewing the tax laws (Hinkel, 2008). According to Hinkel (2008), real estate is governed by the state law. The state law varies from one state to the other. The law s control the ownership rights to the property, the form and content of the various documents and procedures involved in the sal e, leasing, financing, and inheritance of the property. The legal profession spends time and clientÃ¢â¬â¢s money worrying about the ownership of property. This becomes difficult for the investor or the buyer to use the property because until the process is over the buyer has no right over the property. Therefore, if the buyer wanted to put up business in the estate, it will take him/her a